By Christian Jarrett @bps.org.uk
《The Journal of Positive Psychology》期刊上一篇最新對 “智識上的謙遜” (intellectual humility) 的研究論文顯示，智識謙遜和優越的總體知識水平 (superior general knowledge) 有相關性。這似乎符合常識，一個人必須要能承認自己的不足才有機會真正的學習。
For a new paper in The Journal of Positive Psychology a team led by Elizabeth Krumrei-Mancuso have continued this endeavour, showing, among other things, that intellectual humility correlates with superior general knowledge. This is a logical outcome because, as the researchers write, “simply put, learning requires the humility to realise one has something to learn.”
這一個研究領域面臨的問題之一是對 “智識謙遜” 的定義不太一致，造成研究之間不太能互相比較：
This use of different measures makes for a more comprehensive, varied assessment of intellectual humility, but also impedes comparison between the studies.
The findings in relation to knowledge acquisition were mixed…. Perhaps the latter result arose because the higher-achieving students used their objectively higher grades to judge their intellectual ability as higher, not having had the chance yet in life to confront their intellectual fallibility (but as mentioned, the use of different measures across the studies complicates any interpretation of the mixed results).
高智識謙遜的人較不易不懂裝懂、也容易低估自己的認知能力水平 (編按：和 Dunning–Kruger effect 類似？)。他們傾向進行反思、擁有更高的好奇心、喜歡各種對認知能力的挑戰 (認真思考、解決問題等)、擁有更爲開放的心態。他們也更少去當 “社會義警” (social vigilantism)，不會認爲和他們不同的想法是低等的、需要
In terms of insight, higher scorers in intellectual humility were less likely to claim knowledge they didn’t have (the researchers tested this by assessing participants’ willingness to claim familiarity with entirely fictitious facts that they couldn’t possibly know), and they also tended to underestimate their performance on a cognitive ability test.
Meanwhile, other thinking styles and constructs that correlated with greater intellectual humility included being more inclined to reflective thinking, having more “need for cognition” (enjoying thinking hard and problem solving), greater curiosity, and open-minded thinking. More intellectual humility was also associated with less “social vigilantism”, defined as seeing other people’s beliefs as inferior.
Moreover, those participants with greater intellectual humility were more likely to say that, given the chance, they would try to learn more about the other person’s views, rather than simply argue with them or try to change their mind.
Higher scorers in intellectual humility held views that were just as strong as those low in intellectual humility, but they spent a greater proportion of time reading views that were opposed to their own.
智識謙遜似乎是可以在短期內學習的，僅僅閱讀關於智識能力可以被改變的文章 (以增加成長思維/growth mindset) 就對受試者的智識謙遜有正面影響：
A final study showed that participants who read a popular magazine article about the malleability of intelligence (designed to foster a “growth mindset”) subsequently scored higher on intellectual humility than another group who read an article about intelligence being fixed.