[20180420] 中國和印度面臨的年輕男性人口問題

Too Many Men

By Simon Denyer and Annie Gowen Illustrations by Jasu Hu @Washington Post

中國和印度兩國近三十年的男女出生率嚴重失衡。兩國的男性總人口比女性多了七千萬人, 其中有五千萬人目前是二十歲以下,這代表接下來十年左右會有大量的適齡異性戀男性無法找到配偶。目前男女失衡已經引發了許多社會問題, 可以想像未來這些問題只會更加嚴重,從他們的亞洲鄰國到歐美成熟經濟體都會受到影響。

逐年的男女嬰兒(0-4歲)數量差距:

(請至華盛頓郵報網站閱讀互動版圖表)

每年 (預估的) 100名 16-29 歲女性對應的 15-29 歲男性數量:

 

 

(請至華盛頓郵報網站閱讀互動版圖表)

By 2050, French demographer Christophe Guilmoto estimated, there could be between 150 to 190 men for every 100 women in China’s marriage market.

對於發生這種差距的原因(除了對男性的文化偏好外),中國是一胎化政策(由於性別篩查在中國是違法的,我不確定具體篩除女嬰手段是什麼,殺嬰應該只能解釋其中一小部分), 印度則明確是現代的胎兒性別篩查技術,雖然已經被政府宣布違法,目前在印度還是廣泛被採用。

心理疾病:

“In rural areas, men who didn’t get married are really marginalized; even socializing in the village is difficult,” said Therese Hesketh, a professor of global health at University College London. “These guys are  depressed.”

物資層面的影響:

It takes a house, savings and a good job to win a bride. Many Chinese men are working harder, taking more dangerous or unpleasant jobs, to get ahead. Parents are also trying to give their sons a leg up financially. “It’s kind of an arms race in the dating and marriage market,” said Shang-Jin Wei, a Columbia University economist.

The high household savings rate, particularly in China, helps explain its huge trade surplus.

人口販賣:

For the brides, it’s a huge gamble: They are lured with promises of work, and some are effectively trapped and trafficked into marriage. In their new families, daughters-in-law often occupy the lowest status.

Lili, who was born Sreynich Yorn in Cambodia, was paid the equivalent of $450, plus travel expenses, and promised a relatively well-paid job in a Chinese factory when she arrived, provided she agreed to get married.

…she is furious with the marriage broker for pocketing almost all the fee.

外籍新娘經常是被謊言欺騙才嫁到中國, 運氣好的收到夫家善待,運氣不好的則被當成奴隸,失去個人自由,成爲生育機器。

性犯罪:

在印度街頭性騷擾 (street harassment,當地稱作 “eve teasing”) 隨着男女比例失調加劇已經有更頻發的趨勢。更嚴重的性犯罪也有明顯的上升。印度女性不得不作出一些犧牲以保護自己,也有一些女性決定採取更積極的方式捍衛自己的權益,目前已經有一些局部成功案例。

(Photo Credit)

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