[20180608] 覺得自己的觀點是真知灼見?有很大的可能你是錯的

People who think their opinions are superior to others are most prone to overestimating their relevant knowledge and ignoring chances to learn more

By guest blogger Tom Stafford @British PsychologicalSociety

心理學家做了一系列實驗,研究認為自己的觀點更為”優越” (superior) 的人,這些人通常也認為自己所掌握的資訊或知識比其他人都更豐富 (這並不意外),但實驗結果發現這些人幾乎都是高估了自己的知識量;他們也會更傾向於閱讀符合自己觀點的新聞,這也讓他們意識到自己知識不足的機率更低,形成惡性循環。相反的,那些不認為自己的觀點更優越的人,一般都低估了自己的知識量。

通俗一點來說,中二病的人很難認識到自己是中二病,而且他們大多真的只是中二而已、不是天才。

這其實和 Dunning-Kruger 效應非常類似,這是一種認知偏誤,造成能力差的人高估了自己的能力、能力好的人低估了自己的能力:

Source: RationalWiki

“優越” (superior) 和”正確” (correct) 是兩個概念,前者是相對的,後者是比較客觀的。優越感的最高層次就是覺得自己的看法比其他所有人的都要 “正確”:

The researchers distinguish “belief superiority” from “belief confidence” (thinking your opinion is correct). Belief superiority is relative – it is when you think your opinion is more correct than other people’s; the top end of their belief superiority scale is to indicate that your belief is “Totally correct (mine is the only correct view)”.

好消息是,這些覺得自己觀點優越的人,在得到反饋之後 (你的知識量其實不高),通常會立刻降低他們的優越感,而且會讓他們願意閱讀對立面的資訊:

Finally and more promisingly, the researchers found some evidence that belief superiority can be dented by feedback. If participants were told that people with beliefs like theirs tended to score poorly on topic knowledge, or if they were directly told that their score on the topic knowledge quiz was low, this not only reduced their belief superiority, it also caused them to seek out the kind of challenging information they had previously neglected in the headlines task (though the evidence for this behavioural effect was mixed).

(編者:所以看起來能有個敢於挑戰你看法的家人或朋友在認清自己能力上非常重要)

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