[20180615] 著名的“史丹佛監獄實驗”是個謊言

The Lifespan of a Lie

By Ben Blum @Medium

行爲心理學和更廣泛的社會學實驗最近醜聞不斷,月初我們剛介紹過 “延遲享樂” (delay gratification)的實驗結果遭到推翻,現在又爆出更出名、被許多寫入心理學入門教科書的 “史丹佛監獄實驗” (Stanford Prison Experiment) 是研究者 (因此成爲著名心理學家的) Philip Zimbardo 惡意操縱的結果。從 1971 年Zimbardo 在<紐約時報雜誌>上發表,這個研究的方法一直受到批評不夠科學,但或許我們內心願意接受 “由於環境驅使我們會做出集體瘋狂的事情” 這個能逃避個人責任的說法, 直到現在我們才願意正視它其實是假的。就算如此,要將它在教科書上被標注或移除,還有重新灌輸大衆正確知識,還需要相當的時間。

當初的參與實驗的學生出來指控遭到惡意監禁、所以僞裝精神崩潰:

“Anybody who is a clinician would know that I was faking,” he told me last summer, in the first extensive interview he has granted in years. “If you listen to the tape, it’s not subtle. I’m not that good at acting. I mean, I think I do a fairly good job, but I’m more hysterical than psychotic.”

Zimbardo 也多次試圖隱瞞真相:

“Now, okay,” Zimbardo corrected himself on the phone with me. He then acknowledged that the informed consent forms which subjects signed had included an explicit safe phrase: “I quit the experiment.” Only that precise phrase would trigger their release.

But the informed consent forms that Zimbardo’s subjects signed, which are available online from Zimbardo’s own website, contain no mention of the phrase “I quit the experiment.”

心理學教科書作者 Greg Feist 表示他正考慮在下一版的教科書中對 Zimbardo 採取更強硬的態度 (即移除他的說法):

After reviewing some of Le Texier’s evidence, textbook author Greg Feist told me he is considering taking a firmer stand in the forthcoming edition of Psychology: Perspectives and Connections.

“I hope there does come a point, now that we know what we do, where Zimbardo’s narrative dies,” Feist said. “Unfortunately it’s not going to happen soon, but hopefully it will happen. Because I just think it’s a…”

Feist paused, searching for the appropriate word, then settled on a simple one.

It is a lie.

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