[20180619] 中國的崛起對西方價值觀是實際威脅嗎?

Should the West worry about the threat to liberal values posed by China’s rise?

By James Miles @Economist

經濟學人邀請了學者辯論 “中國的崛起對西方價值觀是實際威脅嗎?” 這個問題,並在網頁上開放網友參與。該辯論的反方 (不是實際威脅) 論述被翻譯成了中文,但正方 (是實際威脅) 因為言論審查無法被翻譯:

以下為結尾主持人 (moderator) 總結的摘錄:

正方

(Minxin Pei, Claremont McKenna College) 中國已經不滿足西方主導的現狀,決定利用西方的衰退擴展自己國家以及意識形態的影響力:

The case made by Minxin was that China had changed. It had become less tolerant of the global status quo. It now saw the West in decline and was determined to take advantage of that. China, Minxin argued, had “embarked on an ambitious programme to extend its economic, cultural and geopolitical influence around the world.”

(Isabel Hilton, a writer and broadcaster)  習近平試圖輸出 “中國智慧” 的舉動顯然是在挑戰西方價值:

Isabel Hilton, a writer and broadcaster, argued that there was indeed cause for concern. She described President Xi Jinping’s stated desire to export “Chinese wisdom” to the world as “a clear challenge to the liberal order’s normative power.”

反方

(Kishore Mahbubani, National University of Singapore) 中國只是個 “替罪羊”, 對西方價值觀主要的威脅還是來自於西方內部:

Kishore agreed with Minxin that economic and political failings in the West itself were a challenge to liberalism. But he disagreed that China was compounding the threat. Indeed, he argued, China had become a “scapegoat”, allowing the West to “avoid painful self-reflection.” The West, he suggested, should “re-examine its obsession with the China threat.”

(Martin Jacques, Cambridge University)  最大的威脅是美國對中國崛起的反應,而不是中國崛起本身:

Martin Jacques of Cambridge University said the greatest danger to liberalism in the West was not the rise of China, but America’s reaction to it. “The rise of illiberalism in America is not an accident,” he said. It coincided with a “dawning recognition of American decline and a desperate desire to prevent it.”

(Daniel Bell, Tsinghua University in Beijing) 中國也追求自由、民主、人權,和西方的分歧只在於中國不相信 “投票選舉”式的民主:

He argued that it has much in common with the West’s, including “a commitment to freedom, democracy and individual human rights.” The difference, he suggested, was that China does not believe in electoral democracy.

中立

(Kerry Brown, King’s College, London) 若中國能成功在保持威權主義的情況下完成經濟現代化,發展理論就需要被重寫了。但有意思的事情不是中國如何成功輸出中國價值,反倒是實際上中國無能而且笨拙的輸出嘗試。

Kerry Brown of King’s College, London, said that if China’s authoritarianism endures, even as its economy becomes fully modernised, “theories of development will need to be rewritten.” But, he argued, “the extraordinary thing is not how successful the promotion of China’s values to the outside world has been, but how clumsy and inept.”

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