[20180724] 奶制品對健康的傷害沒有之前以爲的大

The Vindication of Cheese, Butter, and Full-Fat Milk

by James Hamblin, MD @Atlantic

由於之前的研究持續指出奶制品中的飽和脂肪和提高罹患心血管疾病的關聯性,造成美國奶制品的消耗量不斷下滑,堅果奶 (nut-milk) 產業也迅速崛起。然而,美國臨床營養學期刊最新的研究卻沒有發現奶制品脂肪會提高死亡率的證據。所以刻意避免全脂牛奶、起司、奶油是沒有必要的,但這也不太代表多攝入奶制品會有好處。

作者認爲,近期的研究都一再告訴我們人類的營養攝取是非常復雜的,將營養元素分類成好的營養和壞的營養不但沒有必要,還可能有誤導性:

With every new study that tells us more about the complexities of human nutrition and stymies efforts to fit nutrients into simple good-bad binaries, the easier it should be to direct our concerns productively.

對於奶制品的討論現在看來可以從營養元素轉移到畜牧業對環境所可能造成的傷害上:

At this point, the clearest drawbacks to consuming animal products are not nutritional but environmental, with animal agriculture contributing to antibiotic resistance, deforestation, and climate change. While there is room for debate over the ideal amounts of saturated fat in human blood, the need to move toward an environmentally sustainable food system is unambiguous.

雖然研究結果沒有建議我們應該多攝入或少攝入乳制品,但是如果要在全脂牛奶和低脂肪但加糖的牛奶之間選擇,全脂牛奶目前看起來是比較少傷害的一個:

But she said it could encourage people to give priority to whole-fat dairy products over those that may be lower in fat but higher in sugar, which may be added to make up for a lack of taste or texture. She points to the classic example of chocolate milk, the low-fat varieties of which are still given to schoolchildren under the misguided belief that it is a “health food.”

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