[20180810] Google 向中國審查低頭的祕密計劃被揭發後引發內外反對聲浪

GOOGLE STRUGGLES TO CONTAIN EMPLOYEE UPROAR OVER CHINA CENSORSHIP PLANS

INSIDE GOOGLE’S EFFORT TO DEVELOP A CENSORED SEARCH ENGINE IN CHINA

by Ryan Gallagher @TheIntercept_

被內部人員泄漏之前,Google 全部 88,000+ 員工內只有寥寥數百人 (約爲全公司的 0.35%) 知道公司配合中國審查開發搜尋引擎的 Dragonfly (蜻蜓) 項目 (2017 年初啓動),現在所有人都知道了,在世界各 Google 辦公室都出現了大量不滿的聲音。公司管理層的對應措施是快速關閉大部分員工對 Dragonfly 項目文件的訪問權限 (這又是內部人員透漏的),造成員工更加不滿:

“Everyone’s access to documents got turned off, and is being turned on [on a] document-by-document basis,” said one source. “There’s been total radio silence from leadership, which is making a lot of people upset and scared. … Our internal meme site and Google Plus are full of talk, and people are a.n.g.r.y.”

各大新聞媒體也都從 Google 內部獲得了消息來源,根據彭博社 (Bloomberg) 的描述,內部員工之間產生了激烈的辯論,有些支持 Dragonfly 項目的人認爲杯葛中國市場無法產生任何正面影響:

Bloomberg described a ferocious discussion among Google staffers, with some backing the company’s censored search proposal because they believed that boycotting the country would not “bring any positive change.”

各人權組織也同聲嚴厲譴責 Google, 批評 Google 爲了中國市場竟然願意放棄自己的原則,尤其在中國加大打壓國內人權運動和反對聲音的這個時機點屈服,更會鼓勵北京的這種行爲:

Maya Wang, China researcher at Human Rights Watch, said Google’s plans risked abetting Chinese government abuses. “That Google appears to be developing this censored version of a search engine in the midst of a harsh, nationwide crackdown on human rights in China — with the consultation of senior Chinese government officials — is alarming,” said Wang.

根據內部泄漏的文件,Google 利用他們在中國收購的 265.com 收集用戶搜尋關鍵詞,在中國測試搜尋結果是否被封鎖,以此建立了包含上千網站的黑名單,用以過濾以及預測中國共產黨政府是否會封鎖一個網站,以此提供符合審查的搜尋引擎:

It appears that Google has used 265.com as a de facto honeypot for market research, storing information about Chinese users’ searches before sending them along to Baidu…

After gathering sample queries from 265.com, Google engineers used them to review lists of websites that people would see in response to their searches. The Dragonfly developers used a tool they called “BeaconTower” to check whether the websites were blocked by the Great Firewall. They compiled a list of thousands of websites that were banned, and then integrated this information into a censored version of Google’s search engine so that it would automatically manipulate Google results, purging links to websites prohibited in China from the first page shown to users.

後續文章:

  1. Google Censorship Plan Is “Not Right” and “Stupid,” Says Former Google Head of Free Expression (2018/08/11)

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