[20181129] 爲何 Manafort 選擇背棄認罪協議?

Why Did Manafort Cooperate With Trump Over Mueller?

by Ken White @NYTimes Opinion

本周一特別檢察官 Robert Mueller 正式提交了一份報告指控川普前競選總幹事 Paul Manafort 違反了九月的認罪協議,對 FBI 說謊、並且經過他的律師不斷泄漏偵查內容給他的前老板、現任美國總統  Donald Trump。

First, prosecutors say, the former Trump campaign chairman and convicted felon Paul Manafort violated his cooperation agreement with them, and second, Mr. Manafort’s lawyers are said to have been leaking the details of that cooperation to President Trump’s legal team.

爲什麼 Manafort 寧可冒着被抓到、加重刑期的風險也要保護 Trump?本文作者 (一名刑事辯護律師、前聯邦檢察官) 分析後認爲,唯一的結論就是 Manafort 將賭注全放在了讓 Trump 使用總統權力特赦他,對利用認罪協議減免刑期已經不報希望。

Trump 和 Manafort 之間有一個 joint defense agreement 協議,讓雙方的律師得以在不放棄律師-客戶守密特權 (attorney-client privilege) 的情況下交換情報,但這個協議要求在任何一方選擇和政府合作 (認罪) 的時候被解除,因爲雙方的利益明顯已經不一致。Manafort 在認罪之後仍然和 Trump 保持聯系的行爲史無前例,非常張揚地挑戰刑事訴訟的通例:

Mr. Mueller’s mistake is understandable. Mr. Manafort’s lawyers’ communications with Mr. Trump’s lawyers are shocking and unprecedented, a brazen violation of criminal defense norms notable even in an investigation full of them.

這對 Mueller 是個嚴重打擊,他在喪失了關鍵證人的同時,還泄漏了不知道多少機密,讓 Trump 的律師團隊能夠及早準備應對。

但另一方面,成功揭發這件事讓 Mueller 可以挑戰律師-客戶守密特權,進而獲取 Trump 和 Manafort 律師之間通信的內容。爲達成次目的的法庭戰爭將會非常精彩:

If they revealed client confidences, they waived the attorney-client privilege. Mr. Mueller can, and perhaps should, try to find out what Mr. Trump’s and Mr. Manafort’s lawyers said to one another about their respective clients after Mr. Manafort began cooperating. The resulting legal battles over privilege would be spectacular.

Photo Credit

發表迴響

你的電子郵件位址並不會被公開。 必要欄位標記為 *

這個網站採用 Akismet 服務減少垃圾留言。進一步瞭解 Akismet 如何處理網站訪客的留言資料